Dental prosthesis and halitosis: Evaluation of oral malodor in patients with and without a dental prosthesis
Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate in an adult population the correlation between different methods for the evaluation of halitosis and investigate the influence of prosthetic rehabilitation on halitosis level.
Materials and methods A sample of 50 adult patients was selected at the Dentistry Unit of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, who were divided in Group 1 (absence of prosthesis), Group 2 (fixed prosthesis), and Group 3 (removable prosthesis). The assessment of oral malodor was carried out by organoleptic evaluation, measuring the concentration of H2S, CH3SH, and (CH3)2S with Oral ChromaTM and quantification of salivary β-galactosidases (Sβ-g) activity through the spectrophotometric method. Statistics: Anova, Postdoc LSD test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (P) and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (Rho) were used; p values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results A positive and significant correlation between organoleptic evaluation, Sβ-g, levels of volatile sulfur compounds Oral ChromaTM measurements was found (p<0.05). By stratifying patients with and without a dental prosthesis, it was possible to show a significant increase of organoleptic scores (p<0.05), β-galactosidase (p<0.05), food stagnation (p<0.01) and a higher scores of H2S (p<0.05) and CH3SH (p<0.05) in patients wearing a prosthesis. Stratifying results between Groups 1-2-3, it was possible to see that some parameters were higher in Group 3, followed by Group 2.
Conclusion The presence of prosthetic rehabilitation negatively affected halitosis in the patients according to both clinical and self-reported evaluations.
2. Nadanovsky P, Carvalho LB, Ponce de Leon A. Oral malodour and its association with age and sex in a general population in Brazil. Oral Dis 2007;13:105-9.
3. de Jongh A, van Wijk AJ, Horstman M, de Baat C. Attitudes towards individuals with halitosis: an online cross sectional survey of the Dutch general population. Br Dent J 2014;216:E8.
4. Aimetti M, Perotto S, Castiglione A et al. Prevalence estimation of halitosis and its association with oral health-related parameters in an adult population of a city in North Italy. J Clin Periodontol 2015;42,1105-14.
5. Bornstein MM, Kislig K, Hoti BB et al. Prevalence of halitosis in the population of the city of Bern, Switzerland: a study comparing self-reported and clinical data. Eur J Oral Sci 2009;117:261-7.
6. Setia S, Pannu P, Gambhir RS et al. Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014;5:67-72.
7. Yokoyama S, Ohnuki M, Shinada K et al. Oral malodor and related factors in Japanese senior high school students. J Sch Health 2010;80:346-52.
8. AlSadhan SA. Self-perceived halitosis and related factors among adults residing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study. Saudi Dent J 2016;28:118-23.
9. Goldberg S, Kozlovsky A, Gordon D et al. Cadaverine as a Putative Component of Oral Malodor. J Dent Res 1994;73:1168-72.
10. Haraszthy VI, Zambon JJ, Sreenivasan PK et al. Identification of oral bacterial species associated with halitosis. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138:1113-20.
11. Kleinberg I, Westbay G. Salivary and metabolic factors involved in oral malodor formation. J Periodontol 1992;63:768-75.
12. Aydin M, Harvey-Woodworth CN. Halitosis: a new definition and classification. Br Dent J 2014;217:E1.
13. Costacurta M, Petrini M, Biferi V et al. The correlation between different techniques for the evaluation of oral malodour in children with and without orthodontic treatment. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2019;20:233-6.
14. Zurfluh MA, van Waes HJ, Filippi A. The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2013;123:1064-75.
15. Sinjari B, Murmura G, Caputi S et al. Use of Oral ChromaTM in the assessment of volatile sulfur compounds in patients with fixed protheses. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2013;26:691-7.
16. Huang J, Li CY, Jiang JH. Effects of fixed orthodontic brackets on oral malodor: A systematic review and meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Medicine (Baltimore) 2018;97:e0233.
17. Petrini M, Trentini P, Ferrante M et al. Spectrophotometric assessment of salivary beta-galactosidases in halitosis. J Breath Res 2012;6:021001.
18. Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. Measurement of oral malodor: current methods and future prospects. J Periodontol 1992;63:776-82.
19. van den Broek AM, Feenstra L, de Baat C. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. J Dent 2007;35:627-35.
20. Petrini M, Costacurta M, Ferrante M et al. Association between the organoleptic scores, oral condition and salivary beta-galactosidases in children affected by halitosis. Int J Dent Hyg 2014;12:213-8.
21. Vandekerckhove B, Van den Velde S, De Smit M et al. Clinical reliability of non-organoleptic oral malodour measurements. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:964-9.
22. Petrini M, Costacurta M, Biferi V et al. Correlation between halitosis, oral health status and salivary β-galactosidases and time spent in physical activities in children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2018;19:260-264.
23. Vale KLD, Horliana A, Romero SDS et al. Evaluation of the treatment of halitosis with photodynamic therapy in older patients with complete denture: Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019;98:e16275.
24. Sterer N, Shaharabany M, Rosenberg M. beta-Galactosidase activity and H(2)S production in an experimental oral biofilm. J Breath Res 2009;3:016006.
25. Tanabe S, Grenier D. Characterization of volatile sulfur compound production by Solobacterium moorei. Arch Oral Biol 2012;57:1639-43.
26. Nalcaci R, Baran I. Oral malodor and removable complete dentures in the elderly. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;105:e5-9.
27. Garrett NR. Poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures at night, perceptions of mouth dryness and burning, and lower educational level may be related to oral malodor in denture wearers. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2010;10:67-9.
28. Ahmed HO, Zmnako SSF, Amin ZM et al. Impact of the halitosis on QoL in overweight and obese patients: Based on six years of experience in two centers in sulaimani governorate, Kurdistan Region/Iraq, and case series study. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2019;43:33-7.
29. Fukui M, Hinode D, Yokoyama M et al. Levels of salivary stress markers in patients with anxiety about halitosis. Arch Oral Biol 2010;55:842-7.
30. Settineri S, Mento C, Gugliotta SC et al. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8:34.
- Abstract views: 29
- pdf: 25
Copyright (c) 2020 Ariesdue
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.